The Arctic Small Communities Preparedness Database and Map is a deliverable of the Prevention, Preparedness and Response (PPR) in Small Communities project of the Emergency Prevention Preparedness and Response (EPPR) Working Group of the Arctic Council. The project was developed following an EPPR workshop held in Anchorage, Alaska in 2015, at which participants identified the need for direct feedback from communities about their emergency prevention, preparedness, and response capabilities.
The Arctic Small Communities Preparedness Database and Map is tasked with:
- Identifying and compiling best practices in the form of a resource guide
- Surveying Arctic small communities regarding their preparedness, and develop a communities database online
- Feeding the database into an interactive map that features preparedness levels by community.
Together these represent tangible resources that remote Arctic communities can use, along with a compelling visualization of community preparedness.
Within the context of this project, small Arctic communities are defined less by population and more by their remoteness (distance from response hubs or infrastructure), lack of resources (human capability and competency, and response assets), and proximity to risk (defined by threat, vulnerability, consequence, and frequency). It is important to recognize that small communities manage risk often, but at small scales. Building from their experience is an important way to approach more significant risk/incidents that might produce themselves in the Arctic.
It is anticipated that small communities will get the most value from increased attention to their role in preparedness. With regards to prevention, the project identifies bottlenecks and finds solutions to implementation, but often these are outside the direct responsibility of small communities. Similarly, small communities’ ability to mount an effective response to medium to large scale incidents is minimal, so engagement in this area will vary by size and scale of risk.
The Arctic Small Communities Preparedness Database and Map is a deliverable of the EPPR Working Group under the U.S. Chairmanship of the Arctic Council.
Lead Organizations: United States Coast Guard and Norwegian Coastal Administration
Principal Investigator & Project Manager: Nils Andreassen, Executive Director, Institute of the North
An organizing committee was established comprised of EPPR project leads from the U.S. Coast Guard, Norwegian Coastal Administration, and Transport Canada, as well as from Aleut International Association.
The Institute of the North: is the project manager and principal investigator. The Institute of the North is a non-partisan policy center that provides best practices from around the Circumpolar North to address critical challenges and take advantage of timely opportunities stemming from an increasingly active region. The Institute hosts initiatives that cross sectors and jurisdictions to empower northern peoples, increasing knowledge of northern issues at local, national and international levels of governance while strengthening Alaskans’ voices in decision-making processes. The Institute of the North has been the PI for the AMATII and Arctic Energy Summit SDWG projects, the Secretariat for the Circumpolar Infrastructure Task Force for SDWG, and the editor of AMSA for PAME.
The Arctic Portal: is a comprehensive gateway to Arctic information and data on the internet, increasing information sharing and co-operation among Arctic stakeholders and granting exposure to Arctic related information and data. For this purpose, Arctic Portal works in close collaboration with partners all over the world, developing new projects and initiative. Ultimately the Arctic Portal is working to increase Arctic-related knowledge. The Arctic Portal Mapping System provides visual information about Arctic related information through various databases and websites. Contact: Halldór Jóhannsson Norðurslóðagáttin ehf, Skipagata 12, PO Box 170, 602 Akureyri, Iceland, tel. +354 462 2800, mob. +354 899 2929,
Arctic Oil Spill Response and Recovery Library
- EPPR Completed Work documents. Available online at: https://arctic-council.org/eppr/completed-work/
- Agreement on Cooperation on Marine Oil Pollution Preparedness and Response in the Arctic. Arctic Council. 2013. Available online at: https://oaarchive.arctic-council.org/handle/11374/529
- EPPR RP3 Report – Recommended Practices for Arctic Oil Spill Prevention. Arctic Council EPPR. 2012. Available online at: http://www.arctic-council.org/eppr/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/EPPR-RP3-Best-Practices-report-v3.1-31aug12.pdf
- Guidelines and Strategies for Oily Waste Management in the Arctic Regions. By Polaris Applied Sciences, Inc. for Joint Secretariat Inuvialuit Renewable Resources Committees. Arctic Council EPPR. 2009. Available online at: http://arctic-council.org/eppr/completed-work/oil-and-gas-products/eppr-waste-management-report/
- NOAA: ERMA (Environmental Response Management Application). Available online at: https://erma.noaa.gov/arctic/erma.html#/x=-161.91096&y=64.76126&z=4&layers=3+12864+12888+676+8480
- NOAA: ADIOS (Automated Data Inquiry for Oil Spills). Available online at: http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/oil-and-chemical-spills/oil-spills/response-tools/adios.html
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) “Oil in Ice” documents. Available online at: http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionResponse/Inventory%20of%20information/Pages/Oil%20in%20ice.aspx
- CANDEN Agreement (1983) aims at developing bilateral cooperation for protecting the marine environment of the waters lying between Canada and Greenland, particularly with respect to preparedness measures as a contingency against pollution incidents resulting from offshore hydrocarbon exploration or shipping activities.
- The 1971 Copenhagen Agreement (revised in 1993) between Denmark (including Greenland), Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden also addresses marine pollution. "Nordic Agreement Concerning Co-Operation in Measures to Deal with Pollution of Sea by Oil." www.copenhagenagreement.org
USA: United States Coast Guard
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, USA. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/united-states-of-america/
- Responding to Oil Spills in the US Arctic Marine Environment. National Academies Press. 2014. Available online at: https://www.nap.edu/catalog/18625/responding-to-oil-spills-in-the-us-arctic-marine-environment?utm_expid=4418042-5.krRTDpXJQISoXLpdo-1Ynw.0&utm_referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww8.nationalacademies.org%2Fcp%2Fprojectview.aspx%3Fkey%3D49479
- Advancing Oil Spill Response in Ice-Covered Waters. March 2004. Prepared for Prince William Sound Oil Spill Recovery Institute Cordova, Alaska and United States Arctic Research Commission Arlington, Virginia and Anchorage, Alaska. DF Dickins Associates Ltd (2004). Available online at: http://www.pws-osri.org/publications/OilIce_final.pdf
- Alaska Clean Seas Technical Manual – Volume 1 – Tactics Descriptions. 2015. Alaska Clean Seas. Available online at: http://www.alaskacleanseas.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Volume_1_Tactics_Descriptions.pdf
- Alaska Clean Seas Technical Manual – Volume 2 – Map Atlas. 2015. Alaska Clean Seas. Available online at: http://www.alaskacleanseas.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/Volume_2_Map_Atlas.pdf
- Alaska Oil Spill Curriculum (Grades 7 -12). Available online at: http://www.pwsrcac.org/wp-content/uploads/filebase/outreach/curriculum/education/7-12_curriculum.pdf
- Tundra Treatment Guidelines. State of Alaska. Available online at: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/PPR/r_d/ttman/web/front_page.html
- In Situ Burning Guidelines for Alaska. State of Alaska. Available online at: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/PPR/docs/ISB-Rev1(Final-August%202008).pdf
- Policy Recommendations: Oil Spill Prevention and Response in the Arctic Ocean. 2010. U.S. Arctic Program, Pew Environment Group. Available online at: http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/oceans_north_legacy/page_attachments/pewarcticstandards092313.pdf
- National Preparedness for Response Exercise Program (PREP) Guidelines. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2016. Available online at: https://www.bsee.gov/sites/bsee_prod.opengov.ibmcloud.com/files/final_2016_prep_guidelines.pdf
- United States Geological Survey Oil Spill Response documents. Available online at: https://www2.usgs.gov/oilspill/
- Net Environmental Benefit analysis for effective oil spill preparedness and response. Available online at: http://www.oilspillprevention.org/~/media/oil-spill-prevention/spillprevention/r-and-d/spill-response-planning/neba-net-environmental-benefit-analysis.pdf
- Bering Strait Response Teaching Tool. Defenders of Wildlife. 2016. Available online at: http://bsrtt.defenders.org/
Canada: Transport Canada Marine Safety and Security Commissioner Canadian Coast Guard - Department of Fisheries and Oceans
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Canada. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/canada/
- Training Manual - Spill Response in the Beaufort. Aurora College. Aboriginal Affairs & Northern Development Canada. 2014. available online at: http://www.beaufortrea.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Oil-Spills-Training-Course-Preface.pdf
- Guidelines for Reporting Incidents Involving Dangerous Goods, Harmful Substances and / or Marine Pollutants, TP9834. 2009. Canadian Coast Guard. Available online at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/Publications/en/TP9834/PDF/HR/TP9834E.pdf
- The Arctic SCAT Manual - A Field Guide to the Documentation of Oiled Shorelines in Arctic Regions. 2004. Environment Canada. Available online at: http://www.shorelinescat.com/Documents/Manuals/Environment%20Canada%202004%20Arctic%20SCAT.pdf
- Field guide for oil spill response in Arctic waters. 1998. Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response (EPPR).Environment Canada, Yellowknife, NT Canada. Available online at: http://arctic-council.org/eppr/completed-work/oil-and-gas-products/field-guide-for-oil-spill-response/
- An Integrated Approach to Oil Spill Preparedness and Response. Newfoundland and Labrador Environmental Industry Association with Leslie Grattan & Associates and The Institute for the Advancement of Public Policy, Inc. Environmental Studies Research Funds Report #165. 2005. Available online at: http://www.esrfunds.org/pdf/165.pdf
- Oil Spill Preparedness and Response documents. Beaufort Regional Environmental Assessment (BREA). Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. 2013. Available online at: http://www.beaufortrea.ca/working-groups/oil-spill-preparedness-and-response/
Norway: Norwegian Coastal Administration (Kystverket)
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Norway. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/norway/
- Protection against acute pollution. Kystverket. Available online at: http://www.kystverket.no/en/EN_Preparedness-against-acute-pollution/Protection-against-acute-pollution/video-about-protectiona-against-acute-pollution/
- Operasjonsmanual for fartøy i kystnær oljevernberedskap. Kystverket. Available online at: http://www.kystverket.no/globalassets/beredskap/opplaring/operasjonsmanual-folder-110093-skjerm.pdf
- Brosjyre om oljevernutstyr – metoder og bruk. Kystverket. 2016. Available online at: http://www.kystverket.no/globalassets/beredskap/opplaring/manualer-oog-veiledninger/statens-beredskap-mot-akutt-forurensning_oljevernutstyr_metoder-og-bruk_2016_web-versjon.pdf
- Veileder for utarbeidelse av tiltakskort ved akutt forurensning i miljøsårbare områder. Kystverket. Available online at: http://www.kystverket.no/globalassets/beredskap/beredskap/horinger/endelig-veileder-for-utarbeidelse-av-tiltakskort.pdf
- Håndbok i strandrensing: opprensing av oljesøl på strender. Statens forurensningstilsyn. 1984. Oslo.
- JIP Oil in Ice project documents. Available online at: http://www.sintef.no/Projectweb/JIP-Oil-In-Ice/Publications/
- Behaviour of oil and other Hazardous Substances in Arctic waters (BoHaSA). Available online at: http://arctic-council.org/eppr/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Final-Report-BoHaSA_23-02-20111.pdf
- Joint industry program on oil spill contingency for Arctic and ice-covered waters. 2010. Sørstrøm, S.E. et al. Sintef, Norway. Available online at: http://www.sintef.no/globalassets/project/jip_oil_in_ice/dokumenter/publications/jip-rep-no-32-summary-report.pdf
- Presentation on “Organization of the Norwegian preparedness against acute pollution”. Kystverket. Available online at: http://ec.europa.eu/echo/files/civil_protection/civil/marin/reports_publications/prestige_workshop_catania_documents/session1/presentation_mr_bratfoss.pdf
- Documents at the Coastguard’s “Health, safety and the environment during operations and exercises against acute pollution” program. Kystverket. 2016. Available online at: http://www.kystverket.no/Beredskap/aksjoner/HMS/
Finland: Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE); Archipelago Sea Coast Guard
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Finland. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/finland/
- Arctia’s Final Report: Ice Management in Oil Recovery. Project IMOR (to be released in Feb 2017)
- Öljyntorjuntaopas. 2013. WWF Finland. Available online at: https://wwf.fi/mediabank/5121.pdf
- Öljyyntyneiden eläiten hoito -opas. 2013. WWF Finland. Available online at: https://wwf.fi/mediabank/4095.pdf
- Öljyonnettomuuden jälkeen - WWF:n opas öljyyntyneiden rantojen puhdistukseen. WWF Finland. Available online at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEC35CSCUg8
- Real-time data and forecasts on sea level, ice and weather. Ilmatieteenlaitos. Available online at: http://en.ilmatieteenlaitos.fi/marine-weather-and-baltic-sea
Russia: National Emergency Management Center of the EMERCOM of Russia; State Maritime Rescue Coordination Centre (SMRCC) of the State Marine Pollution; Control, Salvage & Rescue Administration of the Russian Federation (MPCSA)
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Russia. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/russian-federation/
- WWF Russia’s publications on oil: http://www.wwf.ru/resources/publ/eng/tab151/page1?cat2.cat=37#list
- Modeling of potential oil spill behavior when operating Prirazlomnaya OIFP. Assessment of possible oil spill emergency response. 2012. Research report. – Moscow, RGC Risk Informatics. 86 pp. In Russian and English. Available online at: http://www.wwf.ru/resources/publ/book/eng/770
- Protected Areas in the Russian Arctic: Current State and Prospects for Development. 2014. WWF-Russia. Moscow. 239 pp. Available online at: http://www.wwf.ru/resources/publ/book/eng/851
- Environmental Aspects of Arctic LN G Projects Development. 2016. Ametistova L.E., Knizhnikov A. Yu. WWF Moscow. 44 pages. Available online at: http://www.wwf.ru/resources/publ/book/eng/1060
- Summary of Oil Spills Prevention and Response Plan for Prigorodnoye Asset Onshore Operations. Sakhalin Energy. 2011. Available online at: http://www.sakhalinenergy.ru/media/1dbd9f2d-e253-4d71-ad43-b20f6d152158.pdf
- Oil Spill Response Plan (Russia). Global Marine Environment Protection (GMEP) Initiative. 2013. Available online at: http://www.g20gmep.org/best-practice-areas/oil-spill-response/russian-best-practice-oil-spill-response-plan/
Greenland/Denmark: Joint Arctic Command/ Government of Greenland/DCE-Danish Centre for Environment and Energy
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Greenland. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/greenland/
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Denmark. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/denmark/
- Government of Greenland's manual for handling and prevention of oil spill
- Government of Greenland's Oil Spill Contingency Plan
- Joint Arctic Command Oil Spill Contingency Plan
- Greenland Oil Spill Response (GOSR), provides resources to its members to prepare for and respond to oil spills offshore Greenland. www.gosr.gl
- Environmental performance evaluation for oil companies. 2017. Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. 94. http://dce2.au.dk/pub/TR94.pdf
- Guidelines for applications, execution and reporting of offshore hydrocarbon exploration activities (excluding drilling) in Greenland. 2016. Government of Greenland. https://www.govmin.gl/images/stories/petroleum/approval_offshore/UK_MLSA_Guidelines_2016.pdf
- Store Hellefiskebanke, Greenland. Environmental assessment of oil spills and the potential for combating oil spills. 2017. Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, no. 216. http://dce.au.dk/udgivelser/vr/nr-201-250/
- Review on Burn Residues from in Situ Burning of Oil Spills in Relation to Arctic Waters.2015. Fritt-Rasmussen, J; Wegeberg, S; Gustavson, K. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 226, 10.
- Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers. 2016. Fritt-Rasmussen, J; Linnebjerg,J; Sørensen,M; Brogaard, N; Rigét, F; Kristensen, P; Joonas, G; Boertmann, D; Wegeberg, S; Gustavson, K. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109, 1.
- Oil spill response in Greenland: Net Environmental Benefit Analysis, NEBA, and environmental monitoring. In press. Technical Report from DCE – Danish Centre for Environment and Energy.
Iceland: Environmental Agency of Iceland (EAI); The Icelandic Coastguard
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Iceland. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/iceland/
- Guidelines for Transfer of Refined Oil and Oil Products in Arctic Waters. 2014. Arctic Council - Protection of Arctic Marine Environment (PAME) http://www.pame.is/index.php/aoogrr-by-countries/icelandhttp://www.pame.is/images/03_Projects/Offshore_Oil_and_Gas/Offshore_Oil_and_Gas/TROOP_English_2.pdf
Sweden: Swedish Coast Guard
- Spill Notification Point and Country Contacts, Sweden. The International Tankers Owners Pollution Federation Limited (ITOPF). http://www.itopf.com/knowledge-resources/countries-regions/countries/sweden/
- Oil spill preparedness in Sweden: prevention, planning, and response for large accidents (Ph.D). 2016. Pålsson, J. World Maritime University. Available online at: http://commons.wmu.se/all_dissertations/506/
- Räddningstjänstplan - Operativ manual. 2015. Kustbevakningen. Available online at: https://www.kustbevakningen.se/globalassets/documents/hallbar-havsmiljo/raaddningstjaanstplan-2015pdf